by Alexander Perkins


Dipeptide that is converted to carnosine in the body. Carnosine is a pH buffer that helps disperse excess hydrogen ions built up in the muscles as a result of lactic acid production. What that means is a reduction in fatigue caused by lactic acid, and an ability to push yourself further. Take around 3200mg in your pre-workout shake.


Central nervous stimulant that releases adrenaline by inhibiting adenosine. This increase in adrenaline usually renders an increase feeling of alertness and concentration. This also coincides with a rise of fatty acid levels in the blood meaning a preservation of glycogen. A preservation of glycogen means an increase in endurance. Some research also links caffeine ingestion with an increase in strength. Go for around 50-400mg 15-60 minutes prior to working out.


Creatine combines with phosphate in the body to be a key driving force for energy production during intense physical activity lasting around 0-12 seconds (think sprinting, jumping, punching, lifting weights). Creatine supplementation has been shown to increase muscular creatine stores meaning a greater supply of phosphocreatine for energy production. Three decades of creatine supplementation research has shown that ingesting this naturally occurring compound can increase your ability to sustain all-out effort for longer and also recovery faster between bouts of such effort. Opt for around 5g of creatine monohydrate every day in your post-workout shake.